SUMMARY OF PREGNANCY CARE KNOWLEDGE
Periodic pregnancy checks to monitor the health of pregnant women
Take moms to the doctor as soon as she finds out she is pregnant. The doctor will review moms’ medical history and will also check the current symptoms.
At each examination, the doctor will record moms’ weight and blood pressure. These measurements help monitor the health of pregnant women during pregnancy. Urine tests for bacteria, sugar (check for signs of diabetes), protein levels (check for signs of the prenatal syndrome, a type of high blood pressure in pregnancy), blood tests like numbers blood cell count, blood type, iron level (check for anemia) and infectious diseases (such as syphilis, HIV, hepatitis, etc.).
The doctor may do additional tests, based on moms’ physical condition, pathology, and other risk problems. Tests may include:
- Pelvic exam to check the size and shape of the uterus.
- PAP smear test to screen for cervical cancer.
- Ultrasound to see baby’s growth and position. Ultrasound uses sound waves to create images of babies on video screens.
At each examination, the doctor will check the moms’ weight, blood pressure, and urine test. The doctor will listen to the baby’s heartbeat and measure the height of the uterus after the 20th week. If moms have any health concerns or questions, moms should talk to the doctor right away to avoid bad cases affecting pregnancy.
Health care for pregnant women
Prenatal care is extremely important. Here are some common questions and answers to help caregivers and pregnant women gain more knowledge about self-care during pregnancy.
How much weight should pregnant women gain during pregnancy?
On average, pregnant women will increase from 11kg to 16kg during pregnancy. However, this figure is also very different for women with normal weight, overweight or underweight.
What should pregnant women eat to be healthy?
Preparing a balanced diet is one of the best things for pregnant women. Be careful with the following food and drinks during pregnancy.
Meat, eggs, and fish
Foods that are not fully cooked can put pregnant women at risk. Do not let pregnant women eat more than 3 or 4 servings of fish per week (including canned fish). Do not eat fish that live in polluted waters, as high levels of mercury will harm both mom and baby. Do not eat more than 200gr of tuna per week.
Fruits and vegetables
Choose clean, organic vegetables. Rinse all products before eating. Keep cutting board and disk clean.
Milk will provide calcium for mom and baby. Do not drink milk or use unpasteurized dairy products. The bacteria can cause dangerous infections.
Do not let pregnant women drink more than 1 or 2 cups of coffee or other drinks containing caffeine each day.
Can pregnant women take medicine?
Check with the doctor before taking any medications, including prescription, pain relievers, and over-the-counter medications. Certain medicines can cause birth defects, damage moms’ health, especially if taken in the first 3 months of pregnancy.
Should pregnant women take vitamins?
Pregnant women should take 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid daily. It can help prevent babies’ brain and spinal problems. If moms want to supplement more than 400mcg, ask the doctor before use.
It is best to take folic acid before becoming pregnant. Moms can get folic acid supplements for pregnant women from specific supplements during pregnancy and should be taken every day. Do not take vitamins or other supplements without the doctor’s approval.
How long can pregnant women continue to work?
The working time during pregnancy varies greatly for each person. Moms’ work and working environment play a big role. For example, if the work environment is very radiation-intensive, there are many harmful substances like lead, copper, and mercury that can harm an unborn baby. Advise them not to work late. If moms regularly use a computer, do not place it on the lap, near the abdomen or uterus.
Should pregnant women exercise?
Unless there is a problem during pregnancy, pregnant women should exercise regularly. Exercise promotes a healthy lifestyle, health, and can help ease pregnancy discomfort. Try to get at least 30 minutes of exercise a day. Exercising while pregnant often makes it easier for labor and delivery. Walking and swimming are great options. If pregnant women do not have a habit of exercising before pregnancy, help them start slowly, little by little. Remind moms to listen to her body and do not try too hard. Drink plenty of water to avoid overheating or dehydration. It is best to avoid exercise that could make moms fall.
What are the common symptoms of pregnancy?
Nausea or vomiting can occur at any time of the day (or night). Moms should break down meals into several meals throughout the day. Avoid greasy, spicy, or acidic foods. Some women feel nauseous when their stomachs are empty, so moms should store cookies in the basket or in the fridge. Besides, it is necessary for moms to go to the doctor if morning sickness causes them to lose weight or last for the first 3 months of pregnancy.
Fatigue is a very common condition among pregnant women. Try to help them get enough rest or take a nap if possible to help restore energy and health. Tell the doctor about the condition and symptoms of pregnancy-related fatigue, which can be a sign of anemia.
Regular exercise can help reduce cramps in pregnant women. To ease the pain, help them stretch their calf muscles, sit up straight and try to bend the feet toward the knees.
Moms should drink lots of fluids and eat high fiber foods, like fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Do not arbitrarily use laxatives without consulting the doctor.
Advise moms to avoid constipation. Don’t stress when going to the toilet. If pregnant women feel it is not necessary, get up and leave the toilet.
Urinate more often
Pregnant women may need to urinate more than usual. Hormonal changes are one of the causes. Another reason is that as the baby grows, the fetus will put pressure on the bladder to make them want to urinate faster.
Avoid clothes that tighten moms’ waist or legs, obstructing the circulation of blood vessels. Advise moms to rest and raise their legs. Avoid sitting or standing still for long periods of time. When sitting, moms can raise their legs higher. If the discomfort persists see the doctor for support or additional medical supplies.
Hormones of pregnant women often increase during the early stages. Many physical and psychological changes are happening very quickly, the mood can change from happy to sad quickly, and extremely sensitive to the things around. Keep listening, sharing, helping to understand them more.
Moms should divide meals into small meals throughout the day, avoiding spicy, greasy foods. Do not let them lie down immediately after eating. If the situation requires medication, there a need to consult the doctor.
Vaginal fungal infection
The amount of vaginal discharge may increase during pregnancy. Many pregnant women can get a yeast infection, which can lead to bleeding. See a doctor immediately if moms detect any abnormal or smelly waste.
Pregnant women should regularly brush their teeth, and go to the dentist for root implants.
A change in the female hormone estrogen content can cause a stuffy nose. Pregnant women may also have nosebleeds.
Moms should vote as much as possible and lie on her left side when sleeping. These sites help blood flow from the legs back to the heart. Do not use diuretics.
Skin color changes
Stretch marks begin to appear as red marks on the skin of the pregnant women. Moisturizer can help keep moms’ skin hydrated and reduce itching and dry skin. Signs of skin tightening are unavoidable.
Moms can also have skin color changes in other areas. Examples are dark skin on the face or around the nipples or black lines on the lower abdomen. Moms should avoid the sun or use sunscreen to help reduce these signs. Most of these signs will fade after pregnancy.