MOMS’ HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 1

During pregnancy, moms’s health is often more sensitive and easily affected by both internal and external factors. Being fully equipped with knowledge about the health helps moms prevent common diseases as well as helps moms to overcome the pregnancy stage in a gentle, comfortable, and healthier way.

The pregnancy health handbook includes:

  1. Premature birth prevention 
  2. Smoke’s harm 
  3. Strangury in pregnant women
  4. Nausea, vomiting in pregnant women
  5. Increasing mucus in the vagina in pregnant women
  6. Dizziness, fainting and giddiness in pregnant women
  7. Constipation in pregnant women
  8. Hemorrhoids in pregnant women
  9. Calf cramps in pregnant women
  10. Edema foot in pregnant women
  11. Strongly swollen static in pregnant women
  12. Back pain in pregnant women
  13. Hot stomach, restlessness in pregnant women
  14. Nosebleeds in pregnant women
  15. Dental diseases in pregnant women
  16. Common complications during pregnancy
  17. Prenatal exercise exercises for pregnant women

 

1. Premature birth prevention

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 2

According to statistics, about 10-15% of premature births. Premature babies face the risk of infection, poor environmental resistance because their body is not fully developed.

More than 50% of preterm births have no known cause. Some factors can cause preterm birth:

  • Multiple pregnancies, multiple amniotic sacs, malformed fetuses, premature rupture of membranes, etc.
  • Striker vegetables, young bong vegetables …
  • Maternal medical conditions: Abnormal fetus, uterine open waist, short cervix, history of preterm birth; high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes; smoking, drinking alcohol, beer, overwhelming labor; Weak diet …
  • In addition, pregnancy beyond the ideal birth age, weak maternal condition, vaginitis, etc. are also factors that increase the risk of preterm birth.

Before 37 weeks of pregnancy, fetal organs such as the lungs and brain are not fully developed. At that time, if the mother shows contractions and dilates the uterus, she may give birth prematurely. Premature babies may experience complications such as intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, or even neonatal death. The majority of deaths occur in babies born before 28 weeks.

Prevention of preterm birth: The first way to prevent preterm birth is to eliminate the risks of preterm birth as much as possible:

  • Do not drink alcohol or stay away from cigarettes;
  • Restrict travel far
  • Implement resting and working regime;
  • Eat nutritious supplements
  • Supplement Omega 3 (DHA, EPA). This way has been shown to prolong pregnancy, reduce the rate of preterm birth in pregnant women.
  • Examine and treat diseases actively (if any), …

When there are abnormal signs such as spasm, intermittent abdominal pain, bleeding, cervical mucus; low back pain, back pain, etc., moms need to see a doctor for examination and support as soon as possible.

2. Smoke’s harm

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 3

The mortality rate of fetuses and babies is high: pregnant women smoke, the placenta is soon separated, during pregnancy, there is bleeding, early rupture of amniotic fluid.

Babies born underweight: smoke reduces the ability to transport oxygen, and the baby’s body is affected by harmful toxins of the drug, the fetus has hyperthyroidism.

The amount of toxic milk: babies exposed to nicotine poisoning in the smoke will be prone to restless temper, diarrhea, and heart palpitations.

Children are susceptible to lung disease: in the first year of life, they are at high risk of tracheitis, pneumonia; from 5-9 years of age, lung function is low and the rate of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, Winchester cancer, etc. increases.

Pregnant women with multiple infections: such as premature birth, early placenta separated, during pregnancy with bleeding, early amniotic fluid rupture.

Infants with superinfection: low body weight, slow growth behavioral physiology, lung disease and increased cancer rates.

 

3. Strangury in pregnant women

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 4

Reason

  1. Caused by the growing uterus/fetus compressing into the bladder, usually seen during the first 3 months of pregnancy and the last months.
  2. Bodyweight, blood volume increased rapidly, the amount of blood filtered through the kidneys increased urinary excretion.
  3. Psychological factors: Pregnant women are more sensitive, easily leading to urination.

 

Treatment

Although the phenomenon of frequent urination, strangury causes inconvenience and is quite hard for moms, but this is a normal physiological manifestation so it is not necessary to be too worried. These “inconveniences” can be reduced by:

  • Urinating as soon as the body “requires”
  • Increasing the water intake during the day and decreasing the amount of water after dinner to reduce the frequency of urination at night.
  • Staying away from stimulants such as coffee, tea, alcohol, beer, etc.

If urination with burning, pungent, or if urine is colored or has a strange odor, it is necessary to see a doctor for a specific examination.

4. Nausea, vomiting in pregnant women

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 5

Reason

About 70-80% of pregnant women experience nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Usually, these unpleasant manifestations will subside and go away by the 4th month of pregnancy without any treatment.

However, about 20% of these unpleasant manifestations last until the end of April, even some lasting until the end of pregnancy.

So far the cause of nausea and vomiting in pregnant women has not been clearly identified, there may be many influencing factors such as:

  • Hormonal changes during pregnancy, especially the hormone HCG, estrogen
  • Gastrointestinal motility disorders, intestines; slow down the process of transporting food in the digestive tract, reducing pressure on the esophageal sphincter
  • Abnormal liver function: cases of vomiting in pregnancy often have abnormal liver function tests
  • Cases of gastric disease tend to worsen during pregnancy
  • Psychological factors
  • Body fatigue, lack of nutrients, especially Vitamin B6

Treatment

  1. Stay away from foods that give you an unpleasant taste
  2. Eat foods that are easy to digest, avoid greasy foods, or too spicy
  3. Divide food into small meals throughout the day
  4. Drink a lot of water
  5. Enhance vegetables and fruits
  6. Eat some crackers or dry sandwiches to reduce discomfort before bed and choose dry foods to eat between meals because nausea and vomiting often occur in the morning when the stomach is empty.
  7. Increase the time of relaxation for a happy mood
  8. Take a daily supplement of a multivitamin to keep your body hydrated daily. Getting enough Vitamin B6 has been shown to significantly improve nausea and vomiting.

 

5.  Increasing mucus in the vagina in pregnant women

Reason

  1. Hormonal changes during pregnancy make the pelvis and vaginal walls softer. This increases the secretion of mucus in the vagina for the purpose of protecting, preventing the penetration of external bacteria.
  2. Increased mucus secretion can also be caused by gynecological inflammation.

 

Treatment

  1. Take a shower regularly, after urination, rinse pussy, do not use stimulating products such as soap or sterile wash water, wash with warm water.
  2. Use toilet paper wipe after defecation from front to back to prevent infection.
  3. Wear breathable, breathable underwear and, when necessary, use a small sanitary pad to replace the pads, regularly change the pads to keep them clean, or change your underwear regularly.
  4. Do not wear skin-tight socks (socks) or long pants that will make the hot and moist air in the vulva not airy and good.
  5. See a doctor if the mucus is increased, the color changes, it smells, the vulva itches.

 

6. Dizziness, fainting, and giddiness in pregnant women

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 6

Reason

  1. When pregnant, the volume of blood increases, the blood becomes thinner. The cardiovascular and nervous systems sometimes have not yet been able to adapt to the changes in blood pressure, which makes them susceptible to dizziness, dizziness, even fainting, especially when the position changes suddenly.
  2. Pregnancy is a period when a mother needs more oxygen to provide for both mother and child. Therefore, in crowded places, the suffocating atmosphere of pregnant women is easily overwhelmed by lack of oxygen.
  3. Unable diet, iron deficiency anemia, hypotension, etc.

Treatment

  1. Follow a well-balanced diet
  2. Do not hold a position for too long
  3. Avoid sudden changes in position
  4. Temporarily sit down if feeling dizzy when standing up
  5. Lie down, head to low, feet up high, taken to a cool air when fainting.
  6. Eat a lot of meals or eat foods high in protein every day, in case of low blood sugar to prevent this.
  7. Avoid direct sunlight on the body.

 

7. Constipation in pregnant women

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 7

Reason

  1. Mothers’ diets often increase too much protein without fiber.
  2. Pregnant women drink less water.
  3. Adding substances such as iron and calcium are not appropriate.
  4. Limiting exercise during pregnancy also makes constipation easier to encounter.
  5. The uterus is large, pressing against the intestines, making constipation worse in the last months of pregnancy.

Treatment

  1. Eat a variety and full of food sources, increase fruits and vegetables.
  2. Drink enough water: Drink 2 – 3 liters of water daily (including water, juice, broth, etc.). Moms can drink honey or juice to help with bowel movements.
  3. Go for a walk in the morning and evening; Also take advantage of several minutes to move and exercise several times in the office
  4. Eat plenty of vegetables, fruits, whole grains.
  5. Practice the habit of peeing on time.
  6. Drink a glass of milk or a glass of water after waking up in the morning, gently massaging (massaging) the abdomen can help the intestinal tract contract, leading to a bowel movement.
  7. See a doctor for help if the constipation is severe.

8. Hemorrhoids in pregnant women

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 8

Reason

  1. Constipation, diarrhea, exertion cause pressure in the vein to increase.
  2. The enlarged uterus presses on the vein, which interferes with the circulation.

Treatment

  1. Practice the habit of having good bowel movements on time, avoiding constipation.
  2. Lie on your side, apply lubricant, and gently push the hemorrhoids back with your hand if the hemorrhoids are protruding excessively.
  3. Sit and soak in warm water, when severe pain, can pack up ice in that place about 20 minutes
  4. Take anal suppositories as directed by your doctor, take mild diarrhea or stool softeners.
  5. Avoid standing for too long.

 

9. Calf cramps in pregnant women

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 9

Reason

    1. Unbalanced calcium and phosphorus ratio.
    2. Lack of calcium, Mg, phosphorus, etc.
    3. Large uterus, pinched nerves, blood vessels.
    4. Blood in the legs is not good circulation.

 

  • Fatigue, lack of nutrients and electrolyte imbalance.

Treatment

  1. When the leg cramps, the pregnant woman stretches her legs straight, rubs or warms up her hands from the feet toward the calves, to reduce the pain of cramps.
  2. Every day should not drink more than 500ml of cow’s milk, eat lactate, dried fish etc. can reduce the imbalance of calcium and phosphorus.
  3. Avoid tiptoeing.
  4. Note to keep warm, when sleeping should wear long clothes and socks (socks).

 

10. Edema foot in pregnant women

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 10

Reason

During pregnancy, the body produces an additional 50% of extra blood and fluid to meet the growing needs of the fetus.

This is the main cause of the pregnant woman’s edema phenomenon. Edema is more common when:

  1. Stand or sit for too long
  2. Use lots of caffeine
  3. Eat lots of salt
  4. Working regime is hard and hard
  5. The hot weather 
  6. Low-potassium diet (Potassium helps balance electrolytes in the body).

Treatment

  1. Do not eat foods that are too salty: the amount of salt that a healthy pregnant woman uses in a day is 4-6 grams, equal to a teaspoon of 5ml tea.
  2. Increase enough potassium from foods such as fruits, vegetables, chicken, red meat, fish, milk, yogurt, soy products, nuts, etc.
  3. Drink enough water helps the digestive system, urinary, etc. work well; at the same time, prevent the process of liquid storage, causing edema
  4. Follow the regime of appropriate resting and gentle exercise daily.
  5. Do not hold a position for too long, frequent travel to circulate blood
  6. Do not wear clothes or wear shoes that are too tight.
  7. Rest as soon as possible, avoiding standing for long periods. When lying down, you can raise your foot up, help circulate blood, your heart doesn’t have too much pressure.

 

11. Strongly swollen static in pregnant women

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 11

Reason

  1. Progesterolemia increases during pregnancy, causing the varicose veins to expand
  2. Along with the growth of the fetus, the amount of blood the mother’s body generates is increasing, increasing the pressure on the venous system.
  3. During pregnancy the uterus enlarges, presses on the vena cava, hindering the flow of blood in the legs.

Treatment

  1. Avoid sitting, standing for too long, or knees crossed.
  2. When resting or sleeping resting your feet up, sleeping on your left side can help your veins flow.
  3. Wear loose, comfortable clothes to avoid obstructing blood flow.
  4. If the condition of varicose veins is severe, elastic stockings may be worn. The right way to wear is: in the morning before getting off the bed, putting your feet up in elastic socks, before taking off your elastic socks, pregnant women should put your feet up at least 10 minutes.

 

12. Back pain in pregnant women

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 12

Reason

  1. The change in pregnancy hormones causes the ligament system to relax, the joints to become loose, weakens the normal hip back support function.
  2. As the fetus grows, the pregnant woman gains weight and causes increased pressure on the bones – the hip
  3. Dietary supplements are not guaranteed; lack of calcium, Mg, vitamin D, …

Treatment

  1. Avoid wearing high heels, wear or carry heavy objects.
  2. Work, rest in the correct posture, avoid straining your hips.
  3. When standing centrally on the legs, the hips shrink.
  4. When sitting, place the focus on the buttocks, the hips retract.
  5. Bunch your clothes, don’t bend your back, use calf muscles, and keep your back straight.
  6. Use a hip harness to hold the hips, reducing excessive hip strain.
  7. Sit cross-legged or lift your hip.
  8. Massage the hips or the back, promoting blood circulation.
  9. Follow a diet that is full of nutrients, especially paying attention to getting enough calcium, Mg, and Vitamin D …

 

13. Hot stomach, restlessness in pregnant women

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 13

Reason

  1. The increase in pregnancy hormones causes the stomach to increase acid secretion, smooth muscle of the digestive tract, reduce contractility, and slow down the food flow.
  2. When the mind is not tightly closed, food and gastric juice can reflux, causing a feeling of hot stomach, nausea, vomiting.
  3. Psychological stress, anxiety.
  4. Large uterus presses on stomach
  5. Some cases due to abnormal liver function, stomach disease, …

Treatment

  1. Eat easy-to-digest foods, avoid sugary and greasy foods
  2. Divide food into small meals, do not get too full or too hungry
  3. After eating should not lie down immediately, to avoid gastric juice flowing upwards.
  4. Before/after meals, you can drink some milk, biscuits … (favorite foods for pregnant women) to reduce discomfort
  5. Take medication to reduce the discomfort above as prescribed by your doctor if necessary

 

14. Nosebleeds in pregnant women

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 14

Reason

During pregnancy, the blood vessels widen, the amount of blood in the body increases to accommodate both mother and fetus, which puts pressure on the delicate blood vessels in the nose, leading to nosebleeds. About 20% of pregnant women get nosebleeds during pregnancy, especially during the second trimester and beyond.

Treatment

Nosebleeds are rarely dangerous in pregnancy, but if you have heavy nosebleeds and last until the third trimester of pregnancy, talk to your doctor about how to give birth appropriately.

Remember to watch the bleeding time, most nosebleeds will stop within 20 minutes, if this time is longer, you should see a doctor immediately.

To prevent nosebleeds, you need:

  • Avoid letting your nose dry or in low humidity environments like air-conditioned rooms. If you have to work in a lot of air conditioning, use a humidifier.
  • Do not pick or pick your nose as this will damage the nose, making you more likely to get nosebleeds.
  • Drink plenty of water to keep the mucous membranes and tissues of your nose from becoming dehydrated.

 

15. Dental diseases in pregnant women

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 15

Caries

During pregnancy, pregnant women will often neglect dental care due to many other concerns. In addition, during times of eating, the number of eating and drinking increases, often prefer sour food, sometimes with vomiting, which makes the mouth in a sour state, easily leading to tooth decay.

Gingivitis

During pregnancy due to the secretion of fluid changes, the gums swell, easily bleed, even become lumpy, making it difficult to maintain oral hygiene leading to more serious gingivitis.

How to prevent oral diseases in pregnant women

When pregnant, let the dentist check the dental instructions on how to take care of oral hygiene.

Eat-in moderation, avoid sweet foods and soft drinks. On the one hand can prevent dental diseases, on the other hand, can make the fetus grow well, to give the baby a healthy teeth.

Use a toothbrush every day and only floss to keep oral hygiene.

Things that pregnant women need to pay attention to dental treatment

During pregnancy, the 4th to 6th month is a suitable period for dental treatment.

In the early stages of pregnancy, the organs in the fetus’ body are fragmented, susceptible to disinfectants, anesthetic drugs that affect, not suitable for dental treatment.

The last two months of pregnancy, the uterus is sensitive, susceptible to external stimuli that affect spasms, and is not suitable for dental treatment.

Treatment of acute oral diseases, mainly mild to symptomatic relief, is recommended more appropriate after birth.

If during the period of pregnancy need treatment, should be conducted in a hospital with adequate equipment, and at the same time consult at the obstetrics and gynecology department, cardiology department, anesthesia department, etc. to protect the safety of pregnant women and the fetus.

The right brushing method

 

16. Common complications when pregnant

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 16

High blood pressure, pre-eclampsia

Hypertension is when the maximum blood pressure is> 140 mmHg or the minimum blood pressure is> 90 mm Hg. So far no specific cause has been identified.

Factors that increase the risk of high blood pressure are common such as obesity, high salt intake, sedentary activity, psychological stress … advanced age (over 35 years old), poor diet, multiple pregnancies; kidney disease, heart disease, diabetes …

During pregnancy, if there is hypertension accompanied by protein in the urine and edema, you must think of pre-eclampsia – a dangerous condition in pregnancy.

To prevent hypertension, pre-eclampsia what pregnant women can do is to follow a varied diet and adequate sources of food, not eating salty, gentle exercise daily … Special studies indicates that adequate calcium intake during pregnancy may reduce the risk of hypertension (59% reduction), and preeclampsia (45% reduction).

Gestational diabetes

It is estimated that in Vietnam, about 5-6% of pregnant women with gestational diabetes and the trend is getting higher recently.

Although diabetes can have a dangerous effect on pregnancy, pregnant women can completely control their blood sugar by changing their diet and exercise routine.

Some severe cases may require insulin treatment.

As recommended by the ACOG (American Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists), pregnant women need to be screened for gestational diabetes at 24-28 weeks, even earlier if at high risk.

In the case of gestational diabetes, the diet needs a lot of abstinence, so the risk of nutrient deficiency is increased. In order to provide enough nutrients and reduce the pressure of eating for mothers, in addition to improving the quality of the pregnant mother meal, she can supplement a daily tonic. In particular, adequate intake of DHA and EPA not only helps the brain and vision to develop optimally but also helps reduce insulin resistance, thereby reducing hyperglycemia, helping women better control blood sugar.

 

17. Prenatal exercise exercises for pregnant women

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 17

Purpose

Relieve the pain of painful bouts of intermittent labor.

Reduce the stress of mood and full-body muscles when reproduction.

Make the reproductive tract muscles stronger, convenient for reproduction.

Help shorten the process of birth.

Pregnant women 7 months pregnant can start. Note that you need to consult your doctor before conducting any exercise exercise.

The items need attention

Before doing so should clear urine in the bladder.

It is best to choose a hard floor bed or practice on the floor, the sitting position is okay.

Wear loose-fitting clothes (unbuttoned, tighten).

It is best to practice before going to bed or before breakfast.

The method must be accurate and safe.

Number of times should be from a few to a lot, do not get too tired.

MOMS' HANDBOOK: FROM PREGNANCY TO BIRTH 18

Types of movement

Exercise the hip: enhance the elasticity of the pressure of the abdomen and vulva, making birth easy.

Movement: as shown in the picture, the handrails on the back of the chair slowly inhale, and the arms use force, tiptoe upright, making the whole body face upwards, the back is straight, making the lower abdomen close to the back of the chair, then slowly exhale, arms relaxed, feet back to their original positions, each morning practicing each movement 5-6 times.

Exercise the thigh: strengthening the elasticity of the muscles near the pelvis and vulva.

Movement:  the armrest on the back of the chair, the right leg to be fixed, the left foot to move 360° (draw a circle) is done then return to the previous position, change the other leg to continue, morning and night each time you practice each movement 5-6 times.

Exercise using abdominal breathing: reduce the feeling of pain in each attack, relax abdominal muscles to reduce pain.

Movement: lie flat, legs slightly bent, close mouth and use nose to inhale for a long breath, make stomach swell, lung motionless, inhale breath as slowly as possible, then slowly exhale steam, causing the belly to slowly collapse down, light each time each exercise 10-15 times is okay.

Exercise to hold your breath: when giving birth, after the uterus has fully hatched, this action can increase the pressure of the abdomen, help the fetus quickly born.

Movement:   lie down straight and inhale two deep breaths, immediately close your mouth, try to squeeze your diaphragm down like straining when you have a bowel movement (normally when you’re at home practicing, don’t use too much energy) in the morning and evening Each movement 5-6 times.

Short breath exercise in the chest (air movement): when giving birth, when the fetal head is protruding, do this, to prevent the fetus from getting too quickly out and hurt the newborn or is the woman’s pussy is severely torn.

Movement: lying flat, straightening legs, opening your mouth to do short breathing movements, exhale once a second, take a break every 10 breaths, then continue to do, morning and evening each time you practice each movement 3-4 times.

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Author: thanhtam

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